Mr Richard Gartner

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Mr Richard Gartner
Digital Librarian
Warburg Institute
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Warburg Institute
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22-Aug-2016 Metadata: shaping knowledge from antiquity to the Semantic Web


This book offers a comprehensive guide to the world of metadata, from its origins in the ancient cities of the Middle East, to the Semantic Web of today.

The author takes us on a journey through the centuries-old history of metadata up to the modern world of crowdsourcing and Google, showing how metadata works and what it is made of. The author explores how it has been used ideologically and how it can never be objective. He argues how central it is to human cultures and the way they develop.

An XML schema for enhancing the semantic interoperability of archival description


This article outlines a new experimental schema, which allows collection descriptions to be encoded in a more interoperable manner than is possible using the EAD (Encoded Archival Description) standards. Devised for the Collaborative European Digital Archive Architecture Project, it complements the descriptive elements of a collection-level record with more semantically precise metadata components.

Intermediary schemas and semantic linkages: an integrated architecture for complex digital archives


This article attempts to assess the feasibility of a Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) based XML approach to integrated metadata for a complex digital archive. In particular, it aims to test whether such an approach can emulate two key features of RDF–based metadata architectures: the flexible reusability of components and the encoding of semantic linkages. In doing so, it seeks to establish whether this approach can be a viable alternative to ontology–based models for digital archive metadata.

Parliamentary Metadata Language: an XML approach to integrated metadata for legislative proceedings


The article discusses a new XML schema, Parliamentary Metadata Language (PML), which has been devised to integrate diversely located records of legislative proceedings. The schema is designed to integrate with preexisting standards such as MODS and METS within an XML environment. It is discussed in the context of the LIPARM (Linking Parliamentary Records through Metadata) project within which it was devised: the project has also constructed a series of controlled vocabularies, encoded in MADS, to allow semantic integration across collections, and has designed a Web-based interface to PML records created from two substantial collections.

METS as an ‘intermediary’ schema for a digital library of complex scientific multimedia


The use of the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) schema as a mechanism for delivering a digital library of complex scientific multimedia is examined as an alternative to the Fedora Content Model (FCM). Using METS as an 'intermediary' schema, where it functions as a template which is populated with content metadata on-the-fly using an XSLT transformation, it is possible to replicate the flexibility of structure and granularity of FCM while avoiding its complexity and often substantial demands on developers.

Intermediary schemas for complex XML applications: an example from research information management


The complexity and flexibility of some XML schemas can make their implementation difficult in working environments. This is particularly true of CERIF, a standard for the interchange of research management information, which consists of 192 interlinked XML schemas. This article examines a possible approach of using 'intermediary' XML schemas, and associated XSLT stylesheets, to make such applications easier to employ. It specifically examines the use of an intermediary schema, CERIF4REF, which was designed to allow UK Higher Education institutions to submit data for a national periodic research assessment exercise in CERIF. The wider applicability of this methodology, particularly in relation to the METS standard, is also discussed.

Research Projects & Supervisions

Research projects:

Measuring Impact under CERIF (MICE)

This project examined   the potential for encoding systematic and structured information on research impact in the context of the CERIF schema. The project built previous work on impact by producing a comprehensive set of indicators which were then mapped both to the CERIF standard and the CERIF4REF schema created by the previous Readiness for REF (R4R) project.

Linking the Parliamentary Record through Metadata (LIPARM)

The LIPARM project aimed the parliamentary record together for the first time by creating a unified metadata scheme for all of its key elements. People, bills, acts, items of business, debates, divisions and sessions are all described by the scheme and are linked together across resources which are othersie spread out and isolated/

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